Order of The Sharps ♯

As illustrated in the image above, the order of the sharps is always:
F♯, C♯, G♯, D♯, A♯, E♯, B♯


This order is the exact reverse of the order of flats.  Every song that you will play will have a configuration of either sharps or flats in the key signature (except for songs written in C Major or A Minor).  The order of sharps should be memorized to save yourself time when learning new music and for when you have to sight read.


If you see 2 sharps in the key signature, you should automatically know that they are F♯ and C♯ without having to read the lines and spaces to figure it out.  There are no exceptions to the rule when it comes to the order in which sharps appear in the signature.


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♭Order of The Flats♭

As illustrated above, the flat symbols in the key signature will always appear (without exception) in the following order:  
          B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭, G♭, C♭, F♭
It’s a good idea to memorize this order.  All music has some configuration of sharps or flats in the key signature with the exception of songs written in C major/A minor.  When you know the flat order, you don’t have to take the time to read lines and spaces to figure out which notes need to be lowered a half step.   For instance, if you see 4 flats in the key signature, you should automatically know that B♭, E♭, A♭, D♭are the flats represented.

Another important fact to be aware of is that the order of the flats is the exact reverse of the order of the sharps.

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Order of The Sharps
Music Terms and Symbols

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KORG Digital Metronome & Tuner

KORG TM-40 Metronome & Tuner
Dimensions:  approximately 3 inches x 4.5 inches
The right side is for metronome settings while the left side is for tuner settings.  The digital display screen clearly indicates whether the tuner, metronome or both functionalities are in use.  Whereas some devices can be hard to figure out without studying the user’s manual, the layout of the buttons and the clear labels on the TM-40 make it very intuitive and easy for all ages to start using immediately.  There is also a phone jack on the left side that allows you to plug in headphones.  This is ideal for when you want to keep the metronome ticking while you are recording yourself but don’t want for the beeping sound to be picked up by any microphones.


The pictured device is the metronome/tuner that I currently use and highly recommend to my cello students.  I don’t recommend that my piano students purchase the KORG TM-40 since the tuning functionality isn’t needed.  Pianos should always be tuned by a professional who has specific training in the art of piano tuning.  The TM-40 allows string musicians to tune on the go since you won’t always have a perfectly tuned piano at your disposal or a group member with perfect pitch.  It’s so portable and lightweight that it’s ideal for pre-tuning before an orchestra performance, recital or gig.  I also like to practice matching notes to the tuner whenever I have a passage in my music with unusual chord progressions, lots of accidentals, or notes in thumb position that are hard to nail.


The metronome functionality on the KORG is priceless.  Printed on the back is a list of tempo ranges with their corresponding tempo markings that you can use to help find the right practice speeds.  On the front of the device, the tempo buttons allow you to easily increase or decrease the speed.  You can use the tap/beat settings to put emphasis on a particular beat in each measure.  I find this useful for practicing complex rhythms where it helps to have an audial cue for the beginning of each measure.  I also like to use the triplet and 16th note tap/beat settings when I’m having trouble keeping my triplets and 16th notes precise and even.


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I am a professional musician and music teacher.  For more information, please visit my website at www.AudreyWilliamsMusic.com.  You can listen to samples of my music by clicking HERE.

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